It seems there is still no quick-and-ready solution, but found a few interesting scripts.
This script based on Tesseract worked well for me. It requires to have Tesseract and ghostscript installed, and returns a number of ASCII text files from the PDF. Given that the OCR engine is the same used by Google, you can be assured it works pretty well.
A bit less comfy solution can be found on this Linux.com article, with some shell script based on Tesseract as well.